冰攀部分

常用有兩種系統 --- NEI and Scottish Systems (WI System)

The most rational rating now is the Canadian/French one. This system is being used in Canada and the Alps, which account for probably 75% of the known ice climbs in the world. US climbers like Jeff Lowe tend also to use it to rate their own climbs. It consists of two numerals, like II-5:
最合理的分級系統是加拿大和法國的。這系統使用在加拿大和阿爾卑斯山,這兩區的冰攀活動大概占全世界的四分之三,美國的攀登者像 Jeff Lowe 也使用這種分級系統,它包含兩個數字,像是 II-5。

  • The first one (written in roman) is the "Seriousness Grade": it refers to things such as remoteness, length of the climb, difficulty of descent, objective hazards, sustained character of the route. A "I" climb is a single pitch by the road, whereas a "VI" climb is a full alpine experience which will require a bivy except for top climbers.
    第一個數字(羅馬數字)表示”嚴重性”,它代表偏遠度、攀登長度、下降難度、危險程度、路線持續性。”I”是在路旁只有一個繩距,然而"VI"須要豐富高山攀登經驗,除非攀登速度快速的頂尖攀登者,否則難免要露宿。
  • The second one (written in Arabic) is the "Technical Degree": it refers to the technical difficulty of the crux pitch of the route, and takes into account verticality, ease of protection, average nature of ice, how sustained is the pitch. A "2" climb requires only one axe. There are only, as far as my information is up to date, a dozen "7" climbs in the world. It's more or less a vertical or near vertical pitch with almost no pro, or a massive overhang. Since it is very similar to the WI American system, the technical degree is also referred to as "WI". So the WI (Water Ice) system is basically like the technical scale.
    第二個數字(阿拉伯數字)表示”技術等級”,代表路線中最難部份的技術難度,垂直狀態、確保難易、冰的種類、繩距的持續度也計算在內。”2”代表只須用一支冰斧;據我所知,目前全世界只有一些垂直或幾近垂直的路線而且是沒有確保的,抑或巨大的懸壁是"7"級的路線。因為這很像 WI 美國系統,這個技術分級也表示成”WI”,所以 WI 系統基本上像是技術等級。

The system is quite informative, because it distinguishes between two different types of difficulties. However, the two figures are not totally independent, ie a technically easy climb is not considered to be very committed (since in particular you can down climb it).
這種系統包含相當多的訊息,因為用兩種不同形態的難度分級,然而這兩者又並非全然無關,換句話說,技術上較容易的路線一般也不需花太多心力。(因為你可以往下攀登)

 

Albi Sole Seriousness Grade System (Grade I Grade VII)

Grade

Description

Grade I A short climb close to the road with bombproof belays and an easy descent.
在路旁短距離的攀登,有安全的確保且容易下降。
Grade II A 1- or 2-pitch climb within easy reach of a vehicle, little objective danger, and easy descent by rappel or down climbing.
一到兩個繩距,在交通容易到達的地方,有點小危險,下攀或垂降容易。
Grade III A multipitch route at low elevation, which may take several hours, or a route with a long approach on foot or ski, demanding good winter travel skills, or a route subject to occasional winter hazards. Descent usually by rappelling.
低海拔的地方,數個繩距,可能要花數個小時;或是需走路或滑雪一段距離,要有好的寒地旅遊技術;或是偶而會有寒害;通常要用垂降下來
Grade IV A multipitch route at higher elevations or in a remote region requiring mountaineering and winter travel skills. May be subject to objective hazards such as avalanches or rock-fall. Descent may present difficulties and usually involves rappelling from bolts.
高海拔多繩距或是在人煙罕至的地方,需要登山及寒地旅遊技術,可能遭受雪崩或落石,下降比較困難可能要利用人工固定點垂降。
Grade V A long climb on a high mountain face requiring a high level of competence and commitment. Subject to hazards of bad weather and avalanches. May have long approach or difficult descent.
高山山壁、距離長的攀登,需要高超的能力和代價,會遭受雪崩或惡劣的天氣,可能要很長距離且難的下降。
Grade VI A long multipitch route on a high alpine face, which only the best climbers will complete in a day. May include the logistical problems of winter alpine climbing.
高山山壁、多繩距,只有頂尖的攀登者可以一天完成,可能有寒冷高山攀登的運補問題。
Grade VII The biggest and hardest Himalayan alpine-style climbs (Lowe definition).
最大且最難的喜馬拉雅山脈高山式攀登(Jeff Lowe的定義)。

 

 

Scottish Ice Rating System (Grade 1 Grade 7) (WI 1- WI 7)

Scottish Ice Rating System also refers to the technical degree (1 - 7), which grades the single most difficult pitch, taking into account the sustained nature of the climbing, ice thickness, natural ice features such as chandelier or mushroom ice and overhanging bulges.
蘇格蘭冰攀分級系統也是與技術等級有關(1到7),對最難的繩距評估,包含遭受到的攀登種類,冰的厚度,冰的外貌像是吊燈、洋菇或凸出的懸壁。

Grade

Description

Grade 1 Walking up ice with only the use of crampons.
只用冰爪就可以走上去。
Grade 2 A pitch of 60-70 degree ice, reasonably consistent, with few short, steep steps. Good protection and belays.
單繩距60至70度的冰,包含少量短的陡階,確保安全。
Grade 3 Sustained 70-80 degree ice, usually thick and solid. May contain short, steep section, but will have good resting places and offer good protection and belays.
持續70至80度的冰,通常厚且硬,可能含有短距離的峭壁,但有好的休息點,確保安全。
Grade 4 Sustained 75-85 degree ice, separated by good belays or a less steep pitch with significant vertical sections. Generally good-quality ice, offering satisfactory protection.
持續75至85度的冰,好的確保區零星分佈,有少許顯著的垂直區,通常冰質很好,提供良好的保謢。
Grade 5 A noticeably more strenuous pitch of good but steep (85-90 degree) ice. May be considered the equivalent of 5.9 rock in terms of relative technical ability required.
有很多85至90度冰壁艱苦的繩距,差不多是攀岩5.9所需要的技巧及能力。
Grade 6 A very steep, strenuous pitch with few resting places and often a hanging belay. The ice may not be of top quality and protection may be dubious. High level of technical skill may be required. May be considered the equivalent of 5.10 rock.
非常陡峭,沒什麼休息處的艱難繩距,常要懸吊著確保,冰質不是頂好,安全性可疑,需要高技巧,差不多是攀岩5.10。
Grade 7 A pitch of near vertical ice, which may be thin, of poor quality, and doubtful adhesion to the rock. Protection difficult or nonexistent. May be considered the equivalent of 5.12 climbing in terms of technical expertise.
差不多是垂直的冰壁,非常薄,冰質也不好,不曉得有沒有附在岩石上,保護不易或不能,大約是攀岩5.12的專業技術。

Quang-Tuan Luongs interpretation of the technical degree:

  • Grade 2: you can climb with one tool
  • Grade 3: a second tool helps here, but your weight is on your feet
  • Grade 4: feels steep, but not vertical
  • Grade 5: about half of the pitch is vertical
  • Grade 6: the pitch is mostly vertical (usually free-standing)
  • Grade 7: the pitch is mostly vertical and unprotectable

註:垂直冰壁是指90度非85度,所以除非地形特別陡峭,一般很難找到整個繩距都是垂直的冰壁,因此第6、7級的純冰壁路線很多都是地面的冰柱與冰瀑連結的特殊地形(ex. chandelier ice, sustained thin ice, and other weird formations).

 

New England Ice Rating System (NEI 1 MEI 5+)

There are several other systems in use. The NEI (New England Ice) system is very similar, except that the top of the technical scale is 5+, and the seriousness grade refers only to the amount of time required to complete the climb.
還有其他的系統,像 NEI(新英格蘭冰攀)系統很類似,除了它的最高級是5+,還有嚴重性只看完成攀登的時間。

The New England Ice Rating System (NEI) was adapted from the Scottish system principally by Rick Wilcox and Peter Cole for their New England ice guide, "Shades of Blue".
新英格蘭冰攀分級系統(NEI)是由 Rick Wilcox 和 Peter Cole 為了新英格蘭冰攀指南”藍影”改編自蘇格蘭系統。

Grade

Description

NEI 1

Low-angle water ice of 40-50 degrees, or long, moderate snow climbing requiring a basic level of technical expertise for safety.
四五十度的冰坡或是長中等的雪攀,只要基本的安全技巧。

NEI 2

Low-angle water ice routes with short bulges up to 60 degrees. Still climbable with ten-point crampons.
小角度的冰坡,包含一些約六十度的凸出,用十爪的冰爪即可攀登。

NEI 3

Steeper water ice of 50-60 degrees with 70-90 degree bulges. Some continuous front-pointing with perhaps the assistance of a hand tool in conjunction with the ice axe in places. Generally allows protection screws to be placed from comfortable stances.
五六十度的陡坡,含有一些七十至九十度的凸出,一些連續需要用到前爪攀登包含使用冰斧的協助,通常可站著放置冰螺樁。

NEI 4

Short, vertical columns, interspersed with rests, on 50-60 degree ice; fairly sustained climbing. Requires two tools and usually demands that screws be places while on vertical or near vertical ice.
短、垂直的冰柱,有一些五六十度的冰坡可以休息,要持續攀爬一段,需要二支冰斧且要在垂直或近乎垂直的冰壁放置冰螺樁。

NEI 5

Generally multipitch ice climbing with sustained difficulties and/or strenuous vertical columns, with little rest possible.
通常為多繩距、持續困難艱苦的垂直冰柱,很少有休息的可能。

NEI 5+

Multipitch routes with a heightened degree of seriousness, long vertical sections, and extremely sustained difficulties - the hardest ice climbs in New England to date.
多繩距、嚴重性最高的路線,很長的垂直冰壁,持續很長的難點,是新英格蘭目前最難的路線。

 

 

冰雪岩混合部分 (M1 - M8)

They are a generalization of the established system for rating ice described above. There is no consensus. However in the method which seems somewhat dominant in Colorado (home of the most desperate mixed climbs, probably due to lack of ice :-)) and championed by Jeff Lowe, the letter "M" is added to the technical grade. A "M5" is supposed to be as hard as a "5" in pure ice (the equivalence is obviously hard to establish) but involves dry-tooling and similar maneuvers. Sometimes, the grade is detailed into the pure ice part and the mixed part, ie Octopussy is "M8 WI5" since there are extreme dry-tooling moves to reach the free hanging stalactite, but once established on it the ice is not that hard. However, usually the latter part will be omitted since it is not the crux, leaving only "M8". The global rating could read something like an algebraic formula: "II M8 WI5 X" (X in my opinion: I think all the free-hanging stuff can easily collapse, as some climbers have experienced in the early 90's. I would be cautious with the current fad for this sort of climbing).
這是歸納上面描述的系統,並不是一致的,然而這種方法似乎主要只在科羅拉多洲(混合攀登對多的地方,可能是冰太少了)且受到Jeff Lowe的支持。字母”M”加在技術等級的前面,”M5”表示和純冰”5”相等(指難度),但包含乾式攀登和類似的技巧。有時候分級會詳細的分出純冰部份及混合部分,Octopussy 是”M8 WI5”,因為用乾式攀登爬上懸空鐘乳石相當難,但如果有冰就比較簡單。然而,通常後面部份都省略,因為那不是最難的部份,所以只剩”M8”,完整的分級讀起來像是代數公式”II M8 WI5 X”(X 可能是容易崩落,一些攀登者在九零年代初就曾經歷過,對時下流行的這類攀登我會非常的小心。

Another way to rate the mixed climbs is to give a rock-climbing rating for the rock moves. This method is preferred by the Canadians, who seem to be somewhat doubtful about all the M9 climbs :-). The problem here is that you have ice climbing gear, so usually the rating is not "absolute" but relative to how it feels with crampons, and therefore easier than a normal rock rating, but again there is no real consensus on this. (from Quang-Tau Luong)
另一種檢定混合攀登等級的方法是評估攀岩部份,這種方式加拿大人較常使用,他們基本上對所有M9等級的路線都是存疑的:-),問題是你有冰攀工具,所以這分級不是”絕對的”,與冰爪比較相關,所以比一般攀岩簡單,總而言之不能畫上等號。

冰雪岩混合其實主要是冰、岩混合,或是使用冰斧、冰爪攀岩的dry-tooling(乾式攀登)。難度是以相對於純冰壁或是攀岩方式而定,可想而知這兩者之間是很難畫上等號的,所以只可相對比較。

 

附錄

Comments on the ice rating system (from Quang-Tau Luong)
對冰攀路線的註解

Although Albi Sole refers as grade 5 as the "5.9 of ice climbing", don't kid yourself. A grade 5 lead is a quite serious undertaking, more comparable in my opinion to a 5.10 trad lead. I am once of the only person that I know (:-)) who has been able to lead grade 6 ice while being only a 5.10- climber. You will see that grade 5 ice is actually rather difficult to find. For instance a guidebook like the one for Western Ontario or Western British Columbia has 140 pages, but lists only a handful of grade 5 climbs. There are no grade 6 at all in well established areas such as New England, Ontario, British Columbia (well, I must say was, until 1996, when The Theft was climbed in BC). This is because a grade 5 climb has to have about a half-pitch vertical, and a grade 6 a full pitch vertical, which brings me to the second point. Vertical is 90 degrees, not 85 degrees. This seemingly insignificant difference is actually quite important. When you are on 85 degrees ice you might have the feeling that it is overhanging, because of your position, but in fact there is not that many formations which are strictly vertical, except free-standing columns.
雖然 Albi Sole 的第五級相當於”冰攀的5.9級”,但是不要弄錯了;第五級的先鋒是相當艱難的任務,以我的看法不下於傳統的5.10。我曾有一次是唯一一人攀岩能力只有5.10可以先鋒第六級冰攀。你可以發現第五級冰攀路線很難找到;倒如像Western Ontario or Western British Columbia的guidebook有140頁,但只有一些五級的路線;在開發完全的地方如新英格蘭、安大略或不列顛哥倫比亞是沒有六級的路線。這是因為第五級大概有一半的繩距是垂直的,第六級是整個繩距垂直,會讓我到第二個點。垂直是九十度而非八十五度,這似乎沒什麼的差別實際上是非常重要的,因為你的姿勢的關係,當你在八十五度的冰壁上,你可能會覺得是在懸岩上,的除非是獨立的圓柱。

There are only a handful of grade 7 pure ice climbs in the world, to the best of my knowledge:
就我所知,全世界只有少數第七級純冰攀的路線,如下:

  • Riptide, and Gimme Shelter (Canadian Rockies) were the first established (mid 80s). Gimme Shelter is still unrepeated, because it has never reformed completly.
  • La Massue, and La Lyre, both at Fer de Cheval, (Northern Alps), both established the same day in Dec 1991.
  • Sea of Vapors (Canadian Rockies), winter 1993 (7+)

A part from those, there are a handful of one-pitch climbs which are mixed, and which have received a grade 7. T. Renault in France (L'aventure, c'est l'aventure next to Glacenost in Northern Alps, France) and J. Lowe in the US (Terriebel traverse, Seventh Tentacle, Octopussy 8??, in Vail CO) are the authors. While Thierry climbed "L'aventure, c'est l'aventure", the chunk of ice when he was standing collapsed, and he had to do a one-arm pull-up that he though he was not capable of. Jeff's climb are free-hanging stalactites which are reached through a dry traverse. Protected on the rock and with a preplaced screw from what I have heard. The second ascent party said that one climb was over-rated. The first grade 6 climbed in the world might have been Bridaveil Falls, Telluride, in the mid 70s. In the Alps, it was Les Viollins, although the first ascent, solo, by Chantriaux in 1982 is somewhat controversy.


Ref.

  1. Tuan's Mountaineering Page, http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/~qtluong/mountain/
  2. Mountaineering : The Freedom of the Hills

 

張忠恕、邱子寰編譯